The Dirty Secrets of Those “Healthier” E-Cigarettes

When e-cigarettes first came on the scene, they were touted as a “safer” way to get your nicotine fix. A low-risk form of second-hand “smoke.” And an easy route to quit smoking.

But have they lived up to the hype? Are they truly safer? And do they really cut your risk? The truth is more complex than makers would have you believe.

Here’s what you need to know about e-cigarettes.

Bad News: The Genetic Impact

Cigarette smoke can influence up to 53 defensive genes in the lining of your lungs. Doctors at the University of North Carolina (UNC) found e-cigarettes may be worse. They can influence 358 defensive genes – about 7 times more than tobacco.

The UNC team also noted the FDA has approved more than 7,000 e-cigarette flavors. But the approvals are based on oral ingestion – not inhalation. (Note: Nicotine is a poison. Vaping liquids are never safe to drink.)

Basically, this means your government watchdog has approved these chemicals cocktails based on a way they’re not normally used.

But that’s just for starters.

Exposing You to Toxins, Toxins, and More Toxins

French researchers found e-cigs expose users to proven cancer-promoting compounds like formaldehyde. They also discovered the devices grow more dangerous with use. Over time, e-cigs may expose you to 60% more dangerous chemicals than when they’re new.

In another recent study, doctors discovered fruit and other non-tobacco flavors of e-cigs are more dangerous than the tobacco flavors. But all flavors increase airway irritation and inflammation.

A second study showed heat and use boost the levels of dangerous chemicals in vapor. This includes chemicals known by the World Health Organization (WHO) to cause cancer.

Researchers also found vaping exposes users to levels of dangerous particles similar to cigarette smoke or diesel emissions.

The authors of a 2015 Pennsylvania study say e-cigs may expose users up to 1,000 times the levels of some damaging free radicals as cigarette smoke.

Effects Even Worse for the Young

A North Carolina study revealed 40% of the particles released by “vaping” could deposit themselves in the deepest recesses of young lungs. And in a teen with breathing issues – such as asthma – these particles could do damage similar to that done by tobacco.

Here’s another reason that’s so alarming…

E-cig use is already linked to a higher risk of lung problems. Young e-cig users are far more likely to suffer with asthma or bronchitis than non-users.

E-cig use among U.S. youth doubled between 2011 and 2012. And studies show young e-cig users are more likely to take up cigarettes use.

And the supposed benefits of e-cigarettes seem to be overstated.

Better Than Smoking? No Real Proof

Vaping advocates claim e-cigs expose fewer people to lower levels of toxins. This hasn’t been proven. In fact, the opposite seems more likely.

As I mentioned, e-cigs affect up to 7 times more defensive genes than cigarette smoke. And vaping exposes users to several different cancer-causing chemicals not found in cigarette smoke. So the truth may simply be that e-cigs expose you to different toxins than cigarettes do.

Yes – smoking is clearly dangerous. But vaping doesn’t have an especially safe profile, either. And we still have a lot of research to go. Plus, scientists at the University of California found vaping may lead more people to take up smoking than to quit.

In some ways, e-cigs may be somewhat “healthier” than tobacco. But they also pose new risks. If you want to quit smoking, e-cigs are probably not the way to go.

About the Author: Jason Kennedy is a celebrated investigative health writer and the author of The X-Factor Revolution and Beyond the Blue Zone. With over 10 years of experience working with today’s leading alternative and anti-aging doctors, Jason shares his insider status and access to the latest breakthroughs with thousands of readers from around world.


“E-cigarette Use Can Alter Hundreds of Genes Involved in Airway Immune Defense,” University of North Carolina Health Care. Jun 20, 2016.

Sleiman, M., et al, “Emissions from Electronic Cigarettes: Key Parameters Affecting the Release of Harmful Chemicals,” Environ. Sci. Technol. Jul 27, 2016; DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.6b01741.

Lerner, C.A., et al, “Vapors Produced by Electronic Cigarettes and E-Juices with Flavorings Induce Toxicity, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammatory Response in Lung Epithelial Cells and in Mouse Lung,” PLoS ONE. 2015; 10(2): e0116732.

“Toxins in e-cig vapor increase with heat and device use,” ACS News Service. Jul 27, 2016.

“Study shows e- cigarette vapors contain toxins and have the potential to be a public health concern,” RTI Press. Mar 12, 2015.

Gilbert, S., “Potentially dangerous molecules detected in e-cigarette aerosols,” Pennsylvania State University. Dec 2, 2015.

“Electronic cigarettes may cause, worsen respiratory diseases, among youth, study finds,” RTI International. Apr 29, 2014.

“Electronic cigarettes may cause, worsen respiratory diseases, among youth, study finds,” Environ. Sci. Technol. Apr 29, 2014; DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.6b01741.

Bunnell, R.E., et al, “Intentions to Smoke Cigarettes Among Never- Smoking US Middle and High School Electronic Cigarette Users: National Youth Tobacco Survey, 2011–2013,” Nicotine Tob Res. 2015; 17(2): 228-235.

Dutra, L.M. and Glantz, S.A., “Electronic Cigarettes and Conventional Cigarette Use Among US Adolescents – A Cross-sectional Study,” JAMA Pediatr. 2014; 168(7): 610-617.


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Fish Oil: Blessing or B.S.?

For years, health experts touted fish oil as the holy grail of heart health. Then – almost as quickly as the hoopla began – the doubts set in.

Some studies still showed a heart benefit… but others didn’t. Since newer results were mixed, doctors backed off. Maybe fish oil wasn’t so miraculous after all. Maybe those early results were – pardon the pun – a fluke.

Well, I’m here to tell you those early studies were right. And the only B.S. you’ve been fed was from the negative studies. In fact, there’s proof fish oil has many health benefits, as you’re about to discover.

2016 – Tufts Experts Say Fish Oil Works

You might argue with a study done is some far-off land. Or one from some pay-for-publish journal. But what about Tufts University? Tufts is one of the country’s leading medical research universities. And its credibility is high.

So when the experts at Tufts say Omega-3s from fish lower your risk of death from heart disease… when their conclusions are based on studies of 45,637 patients… and they’re published in one of the America’s leading medical journals…

Well, you really have to take them seriously. And this review found the Omega-3s in fish oil can cut your risk of death from heart disease by 25%.

It’s pretty hard to argue with these results. Especially in light of an overlooked 2012 study from Oregon State University.

Doubling Down Doesn’t Double Results

Oregon State’s Linus Pauling Institute is known for bucking trends. Like its namesake, the Institute prefers truth over popularity. And it’s not afraid to take on the mainstream.

This maverick approach may explain why their 2012 review of fish oil studies didn’t get a lot of press. Especially since it questioned some “mainstream” studies.

It turns out many of these studies included people already taking heart drugs. And those drugs can be effective. So adding fish oil may have little effect on some patients.

These studies didn’t compare the effects of Omega-3s to a lack of Omega-3s. Instead, they compared the effects of Omega-3s on people taking modern drugs to a lack of Omega-3s on people taking modern drugs.

Of course these drugs are expensive and have numerous side effects. Fish oil is cheap with few – if any –side effects. And the Institute’s review showed some negative studies didn’t fairly test the effects of Omega-3s at all.

When you test Omega-3s – which have no side effects at safe doses – in a drug-free population, the pendulum swings in favor of Omega-3s. Here are just a few examples…

Omega-3s Have Centuries of Proven Effectiveness

A 2011 study compared Alaska’s Yup’ik people to the general U.S. population. The Yup’ik get 20 times the amount of Omega-3s as folks in the lower 48. The study found that even obese Yup’ik were no more likely than thin whites to suffer with obesity-related diseases.

And this is just one of several studies comparing sub-Arctic and Arctic populations to those living in more temperate regions. The northern populations – with their dependence on fish for survival – tend to suffer from fewer heart problems.

In more modern times, researchers at Indiana University discovered another benefit of Omega-3s from fish oil. Dialysis patients – who have a high risk of death from sudden cardiac death – are less likely to have this problem when their Omega-3 levels are high.

And the American Physiological Society reports Omega-3s from fish oil can help beat the effects of mental stress on your heart.

And the results keep pouring in…

Omega-3s From Fish Offer Powerful Heart Defenses

According to a study reported by the American Endocrine Society, the Omega-3s in fish oil can help you avoid diabetes.

The University of Pittsburgh reports American men have triple the risk of heart disease of men in Japan. But getting the same amounts of Omega-3s from fish appears to lower your risk of heart disease to the same levels as those faced by men in Japan.

A study from the American College of Cardiology shows fish oil can help your heart rebuild after a heart attack. This was echoed by a report from the American Heart Association, which found high levels of Omega-3s resulted in better recovery after a heart attack.

The bottom line? Eat oily fish more often, or take a fish oil supplement, if you want to provide better insurance against heart trouble. I recommend the supplements, since they’re less likely to expose you to high levels of mercury.

In the end, more Omega-3s could make all the difference when it comes to your heart health.

About the Author: Jason Kennedy is a celebrated investigative health writer and the author of The X-Factor Revolution and Beyond the Blue Zone. With over 10 years of experience working with today’s leading alternative and anti-aging doctors, Jason shares his insider status and access to the latest breakthroughs with thousands of readers from around world.


“Consumption of omega-3s linked to lower risk of fatal heart disease,” Tufts University, via Eurekalert.org. Jun 27, 2016.

“Analysis of fish oil studies finds that omega-3 fatty acids still matter,” Oregon State University. Nov 28, 2012.

“Eskimo study suggests high consumption of omega-3s reduces obesity-related disease risk
Fish-rich diet linked to reduction in markers of chronic disease risk in overweight/obese people,”
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, via Eurekalert.org. Mar 24, 2011.

“Fish Oil May Protect Dialysis Patients From Sudden Cardiac Death,” Indiana University, via Newswise.com. Feb 6, 2013.

“Fish Oil May Help the Heart Beat Mental Stress,” American Physiological Society, via Newswise.com. May 22, 2013.

“Fish oil supplements may help fight against Type 2 diabetes,” The Endocrine Society, via Eurekalert.org. May 22, 2013.

“High Consumption of Fish Oil May Benefit Cardiovascular Health, Pitt Public Health Finds,” University of Pittsburgh, Schools of the Health Sciences. Mar 4, 2014.

“Omega-3 Fatty Acids Appear to Protect Damaged Heart After Heart Attack,” American College of Cardiology. Mar 04, 2015.

“Omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil, may aid healing after heart attack,” American Heart Association.  Aug 01, 2016.


© Copyright 2016 Discovery Health Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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What They’re Not Telling You Could Kill You

Imagine for a moment you’re about to fly overseas on the latest jumbo jet. Everyone tells you it’s safe. The plane has been thoroughly tested, and all the test results have been checked, double-checked, and triple checked. You’ll be fine.

But what if 8 out of every 10 tests on that plane were never reported – good or bad? What if the results of more than three-quarters of the test were kept secret? And what if 97% of the tests had at least one difference between what the builder published in industry journals and what they reported to the government?

Would any of that change your decision to fly on the plane?

I don’t know about the aeronautics industry, but that’s exactly the situation with medical trials in the U.S. today. All the talk about drug safety? Based on the latest research, much of it is B.S.

Here’s what you need to know…

Clinical Trial? What Clinical Trial? A Conspiracy of Silence

Since 2007, U.S. law has required researchers to report the results of most clinical trials within 12 months of completion. Simply put, that’s not happening. And it’s not happening on a grand scale.

A pair of Spanish doctors recently reviewed more than 800 radiotherapy trials completed before January 1, 2013.

As of 2016, 81.7% had no published results – not even a summary. Two years past the due date, and the results of 8 out of 10 trials were still a mystery. For example, the results of about three-quarters of lung and breast cancer trials were unpublished.

And none of the results from testicular and anal cancer trials had been published!

Thank about that for a moment…

  • Many of these trials were paid for with your tax dollars. And the law requires researchers to publish the results. But they just didn’t bother.
  • The people who took part in these trials took tremendous personal risks. Without publication, their sacrifices were all for nothing.
  • And imagine how many of these trials that will be repeated – unnecessarily and possibly risking more lives – for no good reason.

Flouting the Law and Getting Away With It… At Your Expense

Long-term, many researchers continue to flout the law. They take public money… run their trials… and then walk away. We can only assume they didn’t get the results they’d hoped for. If they had, they’d have been eager to publish the results, right?

A 2013 study, published in the British Medical Journal (BMJ) showed publication was slow… even five years out.

This study only looked at large clinical trials – those with at least 500 volunteers. Five years after completion, 29% still had not been published. And 78% of those had no information available to the public.

In other words, over the study period, a quarter-million study volunteers had risked their lives for nothing. 171 study teams had successfully ignored the law. And, in many cases, you helped foot the bill.

In his study, almost twice as many industry-funded studies broke the law as those funded by your tax dollars. But it’s not just big drug companies ignoring publishing rules.

Major Universities Ignore the Law, Too

Another study – also published in BMJ – looked at how well university-led research was reported. The results aren’t encouraging.

The study, reported in February, found only 29% of university-led trials had been published within two years of completion. And the best performers barely made 40% publication rates.

Again, much of this research is paid for with your money. If you’re paying for it, you should have a right to know the results. Plus, if the research touches on a health issue you or a loved one faces…

I don’t think I have to take that thought any further.

And there’s still more discouraging news.

Are We Playing Russian Roulette With Medicine?

A 2014 study from the Yale School of Medicine found almost 97% of published studies had at least one discrepancy between their published results and the results reported to Uncle Sam.

Fortunately, the authors report, only 6 of 96 studies had discrepancies that changed the conclusions of the study.

Fortunately?

If 6% of all hot dogs contained E. coli levels high enough to kill you, would you still eat hot dogs? I know I wouldn’t.

And there doesn’t seem to be much will among researchers to fix these problems, either.

FDA Warning Letters Show Problems Still Continue

In a recent review of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) warning letters from January 2005 through December 2012. Here’s what they found…

  • Warning letters for failure to protect subject safety and to report adverse events are on the increase.
  • Failure to follow standard operating procedures and maintain documentation remain significant problems
  • Failure to maintain accurate meeting notes and to follow written procedures cropped up as new significant problems.

The bottom line?

  • You can’t always trust the published data – because it’s often incomplete.
  • The laws designed to protect you are routinely ignored.
  • Even when trial results are published, too many mistakes slip through.

The Solution: Watch Out for Yourself

Your only option here is to look out for yourself. If you have a health issue, don’t rely on the information drug companies give your doctor. It may well be incomplete.

If your doctor suggests a new drug, check ClinicalTrials.gov to see if there are any trials for that drug with unpublished results.

The bottom line is this: If you or a loved one has a health issue, you have to dig a little deeper than the drug companies’ cheery ads. Unpublished results can skew our view of a drug’s effectiveness. “All the trial results look very positive,” could really mean, “Less successful trial results weren’t published.”

If you’re concerned, let the FDA – and your representatives in Congress – know. After all, the law is there… It’s just not being enforced.

About the Author: Jason Kennedy is a celebrated investigative health writer and the author of The X-Factor Revolution and Beyond the Blue Zone. With over 10 years of experience working with today’s leading alternative and anti-aging doctors, Jason shares his insider status and access to the latest breakthroughs with thousands of readers from around world.


“Failure to publish trial results exposes patients to risks without providing benefits,” ScienceDaily. April 30, 2016.

“Unpublished trial data ‘violates an ethical obligation’ to study participants, say researchers,” BMJ, via Eurekalert.org. Oct 29, 2013.

“Reporting of clinical trial results by top academic centers remains poor,” BMJ, via Eurekalert.org. Feb 17, 2016.

Pearl, K.N., “Discrepancies in clinical trial reporting raise questions of accuracy,” Yale News. Mar 11, 2014.

Goldbaum, E. “Discrepancies are common between reported medical outcomes and trial registry data,” SUNY Buffalo. Oct 19, 2015.

Shetty, Y.C. and Saiyed, A.A., “Analysis of warning letters issued by the US Food and Drug Administration to clinical investigators, institutional review boards and sponsors: a retrospective study,” J Med Ethics. 2015; 41: 398-403.


© Copyright 2016 Discovery Health Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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What They’re Not Telling You About Alzheimer’s

If you’re concerned about Alzheimer’s disease, one simple step can help you build a better brain… and cut your risk – quite literally – in half.

That step is aerobic exercise.

Don’t panic! This doesn’t mean you have to spend an hour a day on a treadmill… or join a spinning class with those annoying over-achievers at the gym.

Doctors at the UCLA Medical Center and University of Pittsburgh say it’s easier than that.

Just get more aerobic activity. Jog, bike, canoe, garden, play tennis, power walk… Play tag, for crying out loud. Just move enough to get your heart beating. Do you love to dance? Then get out there and cut a rug. It counts.

Orienteering? It counts. Kayaking? It counts. Hiking in the woods? It counts. If it boosts your heartbeat, it’s a step in the right direction. Do you like to play hockey? Then get out and play hockey. It’s not just good for your heart… it’s good for your brain.

Aerobic activity preserves brain volume. And if you’re already suffering with MCI, here’s the good news: aerobic activity really helps. You can get some of that lost brainpower back.

It’s Just the First Step to a Better, Brighter Future

There’s so much misinformation and rumor out there. So many crazy ideas. And so few voices of reason. That’s what convinced me I had to write this report for you.

Right now, I’m sorting through thousands of studies to ferret out the information you really need. It’s a daunting task. But, as you can see, I’m starting to dig out the information that empowers you.

If you can cut your risk of this scourge… fight back effectively… you can reclaim your life, your hope. And, believe me, you can.

Big Pharma makes their money by offering treatments rather than cures. So you’re not going to hear a lot about ways to stop – or reverse – Alzheimer’s disease in the mainstream media.

But you’ll hear it from me. Stay tuned, because I’m hip-deep in Alzheimer’s studies. I’m sorting my way through. I’ve even put my latest book on hold to get this special report completed. It may take a couple of months or so… but, believe me, it’ll be worth it.

Because you’ll finally see the truth. That you can cut your risk. You can reverse the effects. And there’s hope for more than a treatment. Some day, we’ll be able to prevent Alzheimer’s disease in at least the majority of cases.

About the Author: Jason Kennedy is a celebrated investigative health writer and the author of The X-Factor Revolution and Beyond the Blue Zone. With over 10 years of experience working with today’s leading alternative and anti-aging doctors, Jason shares his insider status and access to the latest breakthroughs with thousands of readers from around world.


“Blueberries, the well-known ‘super fruit,’ could help fight Alzheimer’s,” American Chemical Society, via Eurekalert.org. Mar 13, 2016.

“Eating Fish Reduces Risk of Alzheimer’s Disease,” Radiological Society of North America. Nov 11, 2011.

“Different Kinds of Physical Activity Shown to Improve Brain Volume and Cut Alzheimer’s Risk in Half,” IOS Press. Mar 11, 2016.


© Copyright 2016 Discovery Health Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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Your Brain Is Shrinking… Here’s How to Save It

If you’re over 30, your brain is shrinking.

Never mind that it wasn’t fully formed until you were 20 or so. Mother Nature only gives you about 10 years to enjoy a fully formed brain. Then it starts to shrink. Unless you fight back.

You can slow the shrinkage that leads to forgetfulness, brain fog, and possibly Alzheimer’s disease. You can even reverse it, if you know how.

In a moment I’ll show you the simple way to preserve – or even build – brain volume. But first, let’s look at what’s going on here.

Gray Matter vs. White Matter

Many people equate gray matter with their brain. But did you know half your brain is made up of white matter?

If your brain were a computer, the hard drive, processors, and input-output devices would be the gray matter. The white matter would be the wires and circuits that connect everything together.

Essentially, your gray matter can’t fully function without the connections of white matter. Because the various lobes of your brain don’t act independently. Cut off their connecting “wires,” and they’re about as useful as a pile of computer parts sitting on the table.

The same is true of your brain. And we’ve known since at least the early 1990s that most of the brain matter you lose as you age is white matter.

Your gray matter drops off at a fairly slow and steady rate. But white matter starts disappearing slowly and picks up speed – especially in late middle age. White matter loss accounts for about three-quarters of brain shrinkage by the time you’re in your 80s.

And it’s this loss of internal communication that seems to drive memory and thinking problems as you age.

If you can keep the lines of communication open, there’s a good chance you’ll keep your mind and memory sharp a lot longer.

Rebuild Your Brain Power

The secret to holding on to – and rebuilding – brain volume is pretty simple. It’s aerobic activity. Here are just a few of the studies showing how well aerobic activity works…

  • 2006 – Scientists in Illinois compared aerobic activity to stretching and toning in retirement-aged adults. Over 6 months, brain volume in the aerobic group grew. But not in the stretching/toning group.
  • 2010 – A multi-university study recruited volunteers who walked from 9 – 300 blocks per week. Those who walked at least 72 blocks a week had the slowest rate of brain shrinkage.
  • 2011 – The memory centers of 120 older adults who took up aerobic activities grew by 2% over 6 months… effectively reversing about 2 years of shrinkage.
  • 2013 – A study of older women found twice-weekly aerobic activity was enough to boost brain volume within 6 months. The study team had previously shown the same activities could boost memory and mental clarity.

These are just a few of dozens of studies that show aerobic activity helps maintain – and even boost – brain volume. A few studies suggest other activities may help, too.

Boost Your Brain Power With These Two Tricks

Most studies or resistance training don’t show the same brain-preserving effect as aerobic activity. But a different form of “working out” may. In 2012, and international team of researchers studied the effects of Tai chi on brain volume.

Over 40 weeks, older adults who began practicing Tai chi showed increased brain volume… and improvements in several measures of memory and mental clarity. Tai chi’s advantage is that it’s very gentle. So even most people with joint damage can take part.

Finally, learning a new language appears to build brain volume.

Swedish researchers compared the brains of students in a military language course to the brains of medical students. The language student’s hippocampus – their memory center – grew as they studied. The medical students’ brains didn’t.

Aerobic activity is the best-studied way to boost brain volume. So it’s probably your best bet. Plus, it promotes heart health, builds strength and stamina, and generally improves your quality of life.

This is just one more good reason to avoid skipping your morning workout.

About the Author: Jason Kennedy is a celebrated investigative health writer and the author of The X-Factor Revolution and Beyond the Blue Zone. With over 10 years of experience working with today’s leading alternative and anti-aging doctors, Jason shares his insider status and access to the latest breakthroughs with thousands of readers from around world.


Meier-Ruge, W., et al, “Age-related white matter atrophy in the human brain,” Ann N Y Acad Sci. Dec 26, 1992; 673: 260-269.

Colcombe, S.J., et al, “Aerobic Exercise Training Increases Brain Volume in Aging Humans,” J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2006; 61(11): 1166-1170.

Erickson, K.I., et al, “Physical activity predicts gray matter volume in late adulthood,” Neurology. Oct 19, 2010; 75(16): 1415–1422.

Erickson, K.I., et al, “Exercise training increases size of hippocampus and improves memory,” PNAS. Feb 15, 2011; 108(7): 3017-3022.

ten Brinke, L.F., et al, “Aerobic exercise increases hippocampal volume in older women with probable mild cognitive impairment: a 6-month randomised controlled trial,” Br J Sports Med. Feb 2015; 49(4): 248-254.

Mortimera, J.A., et al, “Changes in Brain Volume and Cognition in a Randomized Trial of Exercise and Social Interaction in a Community-Based Sample of Non-Demented Chinese Elders,” Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 2012; 30: 757–766.


© Copyright 2016 Discovery Health Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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If You Value Your Health, Don’t Use a Pill Organizer?

A recent study discovered using a pill organizer makes people sick.

Sound crazy? It sure did to me. At first. But then I did a little digging…

Pill Organizers: A Symptom of a Much Bigger Problem

Doctors in Britain looked at a group of mature adults. All took multiple medications. But some were having problems remembering to take them all.

From this group, the doctors had half start using a pill organizer. The other half tried to remember their pill schedule.

Over 8 weeks, the “try to remember” group continued on their hit-and-miss path with their medications. And their health didn’t change.

The group using pill organizers got better at taking the right medications at the right times. And experienced a total of 5 adverse events in just 8 weeks. That’s 1/3 of the group.

We can’t be sure of the exact cause. But it’s awfully suspicious that those not taking all their drugs stayed healthier than those who did.

But it’s not the organizers that are at fault.

Drugs: The (Non-)Answer for Everything

Nowadays, doctors seem to prescribe drugs for everything. In spite of there being simpler answers for almost every common health problem.

If you eat a well-balanced diet, keep the calories down, and exercise about 150 minutes a week, you can conquer almost all “age-related” health issues. But doctors insist you take drugs instead.

  • Statins for high cholesterol
  • Blood pressure medications
  • Drugs for high blood sugar
  • Drugs to clear your arteries
  • Drugs to deal with acid reflux
  • Drugs for metabolic syndrome

The list is endless. But the benefits aren’t. All drugs have side effects. And many interfere with natural health processes.

For example, statins lower your levels of CoQ10 – a natural antioxidant you need to make energy within your cells. Acid reflux drugs shut down production of stomach acid. So you absorb fewer nutrients from your food. And certain drugs for erectile dysfunction can kill you. Do you really need sex that much?

Americans – Especially Older Americans – Are Overmedicated

According to the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists, problems related to prescription drugs cost our society more than $177 billion a year.

According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CD)…

  • Hospitals issued 329.2 prescriptions to outpatients in 2011. That’s more than one prescription per person, based on the entire U.S. population.
  • Doctors wrote more than 2.3 billion drug prescriptions in 2012.
  • More than 80% of ER visits resulted in a drug prescription in 2011.
  • More than 1 in 10 Americans took five or more prescription drugs are one time in 2015.

According to a Harvard University ethics report, “properly” prescribed drugs send almost 2 million people a year to the hospital. Another 840,000 people have adverse reactions to drugs taken while they’re hospitalized.

In fact, the Harvard article reports 128,000 people die in the U.S. every year taking properly prescribed drugs.

These problems affect older Americans disproportionately. 77% of those over 65 have one or more health issues. And by the time you’re 80, the odds are 85% in favor of your having multiple health issues.

Which means your chances of having drug-related side effects grow, too. Side effects your doctors may not recognize as being caused by drugs.

Protecting Your Loved Ones – and Yourself – From Overmedication

Don’t assume your doctors are talking to one another. In fact, you’re much safer assuming they don’t. So there’s a lot about your medical care these doctors may not know. And the more doctors you see, the less each one is likely to know.

Your first line of defense is to keep your own records and bring a copy with you to every visit. Give any doctor you see a full list of the medications – both prescription and over the counter – you take. Include any supplements on the list, too.

When you fill a new prescription, give the list to the pharmacist and ask if the new drug may interact with anything on the list. This is your pharmacist’s specialty – not your doctor’s. Pharmacists often catch issues doctors miss.

Also, go over your list of medications at least yearly with your primary care doctor. As with high blood pressure drugs, you may be able to stop taking medications… and save both money and your health.

Asking Questions Could Save Your Life

Chicagoland Methodist Senior Services (CMSS) also urges you to ask questions about your prescriptions…

  • Do you really need this drug?
  • What does it do – and what are the side effects?
  • Are there known interactions with any drugs or supplements you’re taking?
  • If you become ill after starting a new drug, ask if your symptoms match known side effects of that drug.

The days of the friendly family doctor are nearly gone. Along with them, the idea of a benevolent caregiver looking out for your health. Most people today see doctors who know them poorly, if at all.

If you don’t watch out for yourself, there’s a good chance nobody will be doing it. Your risk of overmedication… side-effect-caused illness… and even death skyrocket. So don’t take chances; take control.

About the Author: Jason Kennedy is a celebrated investigative health writer and the author of The X-Factor Revolution and Beyond the Blue Zone. With over 10 years of experience working with today’s leading alternative and anti-aging doctors, Jason shares his insider status and access to the latest breakthroughs with thousands of readers from around world.


“Pill organizers could cause adverse effects among elderly,” ScienceDaily. Jul5, 2016.

“ASCP Fact Sheet,” American Society of Consultant Pharmacists. ©2016.

“Therapeutic Drug Use,” Centers for disease Control and Prevention. Jul 6, 2016.

Light, D.W., “New Prescription Drugs: A Major Health Risk With Few Offsetting Advantages,”
Jun 27, 2014.

“Protecting Yourself From Overmedication,” Chicagoland Methodist Senior Services. Aug 23, 2013.


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Closing in on a New Way to Slow Aging

Over the years, science has uncovered many ways to slow the aging process. Some are old standards – like eating a healthy diet and getting regular exercise. Others are newer and more controversial. Such as balancing your intake of Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids.

Still others are brand new… and pretty close to rocket science. Today, you’ll discover one of the newest – but most promising – anti-aging secrets. And how you may be able to enjoy some of that promise right now by using a back door.

Freeloading Cells May Speed the Aging Process

I’ve written to you several times about cells that can’t divide any more. The protective “caps” at the ends of your genetic material allow your cells to divide safely. But when those caps wear down, you run the risk of making bad or incomplete copies of your genes during cell division.

And those caps – called telomeres – wear down a little every time a cell divides.

To protect you from creating rogue cells – which can easily trigger cancerous tumor growth – your cells are programmed to shut down when their telomeres get too short. These cells can’t do their job any more… but they also can’t divide.

These cells are called “senescent.” Your immune system is designed to identify and get rid of senescent cells. And that’s good, because these freeloaders have a bad habit.

They pump out pro-inflammatory molecules.

When you’re young, your immune system can cope with senescent cells, and clears them out pretty quickly. But your immune system slows down as you get older. So the number of these cells grows. And so does inflammation – the cause of many diseases we link to aging. Eventually, up to 15% of your cells may be senescent.

Imagine a construction site where 15 out of every 100 workers spent their day tearing down the work done by all the other workers. You’d have a mess. And that’s pretty much what goes on in your body as you get older.

As you can probably imagine, getting rid of these destructive cells might do you a world of good. According to doctors at the Mayo Clinic, we may have found the answer.

Stopping – and Reversing – the Effects of Age

Just 5 years ago, nobody really knew if clearing out senescent cells would slow aging. It had never been done. But it was a good theory.

Then a team at the Mayo Clinic figured out how to do it in mice. And when they did, the results were amazing. Lightening the load of senescent cells slowed the aging process in bones, muscles, fat… even in the mice’s eyes.

In cases where the damage was already done, it was often reversed!

But the team had artificially “aged” the mice… and used complex chemistry to remove senescent cells. It wasn’t practical. But it did prove getting rid of “freeloading” cells could slow aging.

The race was on.

The Drive to Safely Eliminate Freeloading Cells

Senescent cells were now an important anti-aging target. The Mayo Clinic – and others – are looking for a safe and practical way to clear out senescent cells in humans.

Just this year, Mayo Clinic researchers discovered a compound that helps clear out the freeloaders more easily than in their 2011 study.

They discovered that getting rid of as little as 60% of these cells made a big difference. Mice given this compound were…

  • Less likely to develop cancers
  • Less likely to show age-related breakdown of major organs
  • Had less inflammation and looked – and acted – healthier
  • Lived 17 – 35% longer than similar mice not given the compound.

But the process still requires genetic manipulation. But they’re getting closer.

And researchers at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) have discovered a cancer drug that attacks senescent cells. But it has toxic side effects… so they’re working on safer alternatives.

A potential bonanza awaits anyone who can solve this puzzle. But you don’t have to wait. Because you can enjoy at least some of the anti-aging benefits… by using a simple “back door.”

Boost Your Healthspan by Turning Your Thinking Around

Nobody can promise you a longer life. But you can reasonably enjoy healthier years – however many you may have ahead. And, yes, it’s possible you could even add a few to the total.

While everyone is looking at how to get rid of senescent cells… you just have to look at how to make fewer of them.

If these freeloaders speed up aging – and we now know they do – then you have two options to cut their numbers. You can clean them out as they crop up. Or you can keep them from cropping up in the first place.

Which brings us right back to telomeres.

Longer telomeres translate to longer cell life. And we already know several ways to support longer telomeres.

  • Lose some weight. Studies show keeping your weight down promotes longer telomeres. The longer you can keep your weight down, the better.
  • Get moving. Exercise appears to preserve telomere length. In one study, active men aged 55 – 72 maintained the same telomere length as active men 30 years younger. Their secret was regular endurance exercise.
  • Take a multivitamin. Sound too easy? It’s not. A 2009 study found women who regularly took a multivitamin had 5.1% longer telomeres than women who didn’t!

About the Author: Jason Kennedy is a celebrated investigative health writer and the author of The X-Factor Revolution and Beyond the Blue Zone. With over 10 years of experience working with today’s leading alternative and anti-aging doctors, Jason shares his insider status and access to the latest breakthroughs with thousands of readers from around world.


Bake, D.J., et al, “Clearance of p16Ink4a-positive senescent cells delays ageing- associated disorders,” Nature. Nov 10, 2011; 479: 232–236.

“Lifespan of mice extended by as much as 35 percent; no adverse effects found,” ScienceDaily. Feb 3, 2016.

“UAMS Research Published in Nature Medicine,” University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences. Dec 14, 2015.

Kim, S., et al, “Obesity and Weight Gain in Adulthood and Telomere Length,” Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. Mar 2009; 18: 816.

LaRocca, T.J., et al, “Leukocyte telomere length is preserved with aging in endurance exercise-trained adults and related to maximal aerobic capacity,” Mech Ageing Dev. Feb 2010; 131(2): 165-167.

Xu, Q., et al, “Multivitamin use and telomere length in women,” Am J Clin Nutr. Jun 2009; 89(6): 1857-1863.


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Doctors, Drugs and Dirty Money

Remember the days of the old-fashioned family doctor? Most had an independent practice. They knew you and your family well. And their word was law, because you knew they were looking out for you.

For most of us, the experience is different these days. We go to a doctor chosen by our health plan. If our health plan changes, so does our doctor. And the chances that you know anything about each other are pretty much nil.

But there’s one thing you need to know about far too many doctors today…

Your new doctor may be “on the take.”

I’m not saying your doctor doesn’t have your best interest in mind. But an awful lot of doctors today are weighing your best interests against their bottom line. And the bottom line is winning.

And – no surprise here – it’s all thanks to drug companies.

Medical Opinions for Sale

A recent study from consumer watchdog ProPublica outlined the problem. The results were echoed by a Harvard study released in June.

Drug company money appears to change doctors’ prescribing habits. The changes sound small, but when you look at the billions drug companies spend to influence doctors, those numbers add up.

This Harvard study found that every $1,000 drug companies invested in doctors, led to a 0.1% rise in brand-name statin prescriptions. A tiny jump, right? But drug companies spend billions to push their drugs… and a billion is 10,000 thousands!

We’re talking about exponential increases in influence.

Of course, it’s hard to prove one thing causes another. But your suspicions might grow once you realize that dozens of studies link drug company spending to prescribing brand-name drugs.

Your Health for Sale – for the Price of a Single Pizza

I often have to dig for the information I bring you. But not on this subject. Medical journals are awash in studies, articles, and op-eds on the topic of drug company influence.

The good news is this means that many doctors are concerned… and trying to sound the alarm.

The bad news is it doesn’t seem to be working. In fact, a third study published this year found just buying a doctor lunch made that doctor more likely to prescribe a particular drug.

In other words, buying a doctor with a six-figure income a pizza could cost you 2 – 4 times more for the medicine that doctor prescribes. Even though an equally effective generic may exist.

The study – published in the respected journal JAMA Internal Medicine – found that buying a doctor just one meal raised the rate the doctor prescribed a drug company’s drug. Multiple meals resulted in even higher prescription rates.

In spite of there being equally effective generics available.

How Many Smoking Guns Do We Need to Stop the Pickpockets?

It was hardly the first time someone raised the alarm. Way back in 1989, a small group of concerned doctors wrote about drug company influence in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

Drug company gifts, they pointed out, are paid for out of patients’ pockets. They create an obligation for the doctor receiving the gift. And they may lead to self-interest trumping a doctor’s concern for his/her patients.

The problem extends beyond doctors’ offices, too.

Doctors must complete a certain amount of “continuing medical education” – CME – to maintain their licenses. Unfortunately, much of this CME is sponsored and written by drug companies. Studies dating back at least to 1988 show drug-company-sponsored CME leads to higher prescription rates for that company’s drugs.

Big Pharma is even involved in training medical residents at hospitals. When drug company employees lead “grand rounds” with residents, studies suggest it may lead to prescribing the company’s drugs – even where the use of these drugs is inappropriate.

The list goes on and on. But I’ll just mention a couple of other examples.

Doctors May Live in Denial About Drug Company Influence

A 2001 study in The American Journal of Medicine revealed a surprising attitude. Most medical residents favor drug company gifts. Most also say these gifts have no influence on them.

But their self-reported behaviors showed they are been influenced by these gifts. They simply don’t recognize it.

And it’s not just “green” residents who fall prey to the lure of drug company gifts. A 2004 study surveyed hospital-based oncologists.

The survey found the vast majority believed they weren’t influenced by drug company gifts… but many felt other doctors were. And though they felt Drug Company gifts influenced their colleagues’ medical decisions, two-thirds felt there was nothing wrong with accepting gifts from drug companies.

As a final example, let’s look at a book you’ve probably never heard of. Even though it was published way back in 2005.

Dr. Marcia Angell – a member of the Harvard Medical School faculty and a former editor of The New England Journal of Medicine – wrote an expose of the drug industry.

In her book, Dr. Angell chronicled the $11 billion in free samples drug companies provide to doctors. And that’s on top of speaking fees… travel… meals… gifts… and other considerations.

Dr. Angell noted kickbacks paid to doctors and agreements with generic drug manufacturers to keep generic versions of top-earning dugs off the market.

It can all be overwhelming. But there is something you can do.

Keeping Your Own Healthcare Costs Down

You should know it isn’t uncommon for entire drug companies to treat medical practices to lunch two or three times a week. Small gifts – such as pens, flying disks, and other advertising premiums – are rife. And doctors regularly attend medical “meetings” at theme parks and golf resorts at drug company expense.

Some doctors also earn hundreds of thousands of dollars – or even more – annually as speakers at drug company events.

No matter how well-meaning a doctor may be, all this money can’t help but have at least some influence.

That’s why you should know about “Dollars for Docs” – a database maintained by ProPublica. This database is built on Uncle Sam’s tracking of the influence of drug company spending.

Enter a doctor’s name, city, and zip code into the database, and it will tell you how much drug companies have paid this doctor. To date, the database includes $3.49 billion in payments.

Payments that could affect your health.

To find out if any doctor you’re seeing has been taking cash from Big Pharma, go to https://projects.propublica.org/docdollars/.

The database doesn’t include items such as meals, samples, or pens… but it can help you evaluate a doctor’s advice. It not only tells you which doctors are taking how much from drug companies, it also reveals Big Pharma’s big spenders. Such as how much teaching hospitals are making from the drug companies… and who gets paid most often.

Your hard-working family physician may only “earn” a couple of pizzas and a few pens from drug companies.

But in today’s rigidly controlled world of medicine, it’s important to know if you’ve been referred to an independent specialist… or to one who’ll act in their sponsor’s best interest instead of yours.

About the Author: Jason Kennedy is a celebrated investigative health writer and the author of The X-Factor Revolution and Beyond the Blue Zone. With over 10 years of experience working with today’s leading alternative and anti-aging doctors, Jason shares his insider status and access to the latest breakthroughs with thousands of readers from around world.


Jones, R.G., “Another Study Finds Link Between Pharma Money and Brand-name Prescribing,” ProPublica. May 9, 2016.

Ornstein, C., “Even A Small Meal For A Doctor Can Tip The Balance For A Brand-Name Drug,” NPR.org. Jun 21, 2016.

Chren, M.M., “Doctors, Drug Companies, and Gifts,” JAMA. 1989; 262(24): 3448-3451.

Bowman, M.A., M.D., M.P.A. and Pearle, D.L., “Changes in drug prescribing patterns related to commercial company funding of continuing medical education,” Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions. 1988. 8(1): 13-20.

Spingarn, R.W., et al, “When pharmaceutical manufacturers’ employees present grand rounds, what do residents remember?” Acad Med. Jan 1996; 71(1): 86-88.

“Of principles and pens: attitudes and practices of medicine house staff toward pharmaceutical industry promotion,” May 2001; 110, (7): 551–557.

Halperin, E.C., “A population-based study of the prevalence and influence of gifts to radiation oncologists from pharmaceutical companies and medical equipment manufacturers,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology*Biology*Physics. Aug 2004; 59(5): 1477–1483.

Angell, M., “The Truth About the Drug Companies: How they deceive us and what to do about it,” review, BMJ. 2005.

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Get Happy: Triggering Your Body’s Natural Mood Enhancers

A handful of folks revel in adversity. But most of us naturally seek happiness. We want to feel good. We want to wake up in the morning looking forward to the day ahead. To enjoy our lives.

But feeling great can be tough these days. It seems like there’s stress on all sides. Crime, politics, the environment… If you had a nickel for every time someone said, “global warming,” you could hire Bill Gates to detail your car.

And we haven’t even gotten to your job and family concerns. Like what the financial crisis of 2008 did to the value of your retirement find. Or the value of your home, for that matter.

Let’s face it: We could all use a little help getting back to “happy.”

Well, that help is inside you. And, today, we’re going to look at how to naturally improve your mood and outlook. Without psychological counseling… without anti-depressants that turn you into a zombie… and at almost no cost. The secret is your body’s natural mood enhancers.

To understand how easy feeling good can be, let’s head back to the “far out” days of the 1970s…

The Overlooked Revolution of the 1970s

Social unrest, the “hippie” movement, and other aspects of the social revolution of the 1960s and early 1970s tend to overshadow another revolution.

Back then, there were two forms of LSD… but only the hallucinogen won a prominent spot in the history books. Among runners, “LSD” meant “long slow distance” – a term coined by Joe Henderson in 1969.

Distance runners who practiced this form of training quickly discovered a remarkable benefit. They called it “the runner’s high.” Runners who covered long distances in their training program discovered that – at a certain point – euphoria set in.

The runner’s high was amazing. The pain of pushing your body stopped. It was replaced with a feeling that you could go on forever… or you could almost fly… or any of numerous other positive feelings.

Long distance runners were getting a high nobody else was. And this helped trigger the running revolution of the mid-1970s. Here was a high that was more than perfectly legal… it was perfectly acceptable. And you had a good excuse – your health – to enjoy it.

The “runner’s high” can also help you beat stress. Studies dating back to the 1980s show the secret behind this high also suppresses cortisol – the main stress hormone.

So harnessing it can have a powerful impact. But do you really have to run a marathon to feel good? Probably not.

Putting Feeling Good on Autopilot

One of the great things about the runner’s high is you don’t really have to think about it. Train aerobically, and there’s a good chance the high will kick in all by itself.

But not everyone wants to train for a marathon just to feel good. And you don’t have to. Research suggests just one bout of exercise can promote a better mood.

In other words, marathon training probably isn’t necessary. The trick seems to come down to triggering substances called “endorphins.” Endorphins are chemicals your body makes that are remarkably similar to morphine.

Except they’re perfectly natural and 100% legal.

Endorphins are neurotransmitters – nerve messengers – that ease pain and boost pleasure. If you can get your body to make more endorphins, you basically put feeling better on autopilot.

And that’s entirely possible.

Simple Ways to Boost Your Endorphin Levels

Aerobic exercise seems to be the best-studied way to boost your endorphin levels. And many studies show it’s effective. In fact, aerobic activity is as effective for beating depression as taking anti-depressants.

Except it’s a whole lot safer… and delivers side effects no pill can offer. Side effects like a stronger heart, greater lungpower, improved body composition, and more muscle mass.

But, as I said, not everyone wants to – or can – train for a marathon. Or anything like it. That doesn’t mean you can’t boost your endorphin levels. In fact, you have some remarkably easy ways to increase these pain-killing mood enhancers…

  • Laugh. In 2012, British scientists ran a series of 6 experiments. They discovered social laughter – such as you might enjoy watching a stage comedy – raised volunteers’ pain threshold. This suggests laughter boosted their endorphin levels.
  • Sing. Another British study from 2012 shows that singing, dancing, and drumming all raise tolerance to pain. A sign that your body is releasing higher levels of endorphins. The key: Participate; don’t just listen.
  • Get Spicy. If you’re a foodie, I have good news. Capsaicin – the ingredient that makes hot peppers hot – triggers the release of endorphins. This route to higher endorphin levels may also ease joint pain and improve circulation.
  • Make Love. Endorphins are closely linked to feelings of reward and pleasure. And there isn’t much more pleasurable than making love. Orgasm is a powerful trigger for releasing endorphins… and that suggests making love is an effective way to ease pain and boost positive feelings.

Enjoy the “Bonus Benefits” of Endorphins

Endorphins boost mood… but they do much more. For example, a primary function is to ease pain. And endorphins do that well.

Endorphins also promote euphoria. In other words, they stimulate strong positive feelings. They also support immune defenses… decrease appetite… and boost the release of sex hormones.

When you put feeling good on autopilot, you can claim all these benefits. And more.

Best of all, you can wake up every morning feeling less stressed. And looking forward to the day ahead again.

About the Author: Jason Kennedy is a celebrated investigative health writer and the author of The X-Factor Revolution and Beyond the Blue Zone. With over 10 years of experience working with today’s leading alternative and anti-aging doctors, Jason shares his insider status and access to the latest breakthroughs with thousands of readers from around world.


Taylor, T., et al, “β-Endorphin Suppresses Adrenocorticotropin and Cortisol Levels in Normal Human Subjects,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 1983; 57(3).

Yeung, R.R., “The acute effects of exercise on mood state,” J Psychosom Res. Feb 1996; 40(2): 123-141.

Dinas, P. C., et al, “Effects of exercise and physical activity on depression,” Irish Journal of Medical Science. Jun 2011; 180(2): 319-325.

Dunbar, R.I., et al, “Social laughter is correlated with an elevated pain threshold,” Proc Biol Sci. Mar 22, 2012; 279(1731): 1161-1167.

Dunbar, R.I.M., et al, “Performance of Music Elevates Pain Threshold and Positive Affect: Implications for the Evolutionary Function of Music,” Evolutionary Psychology. 2012; 10(4).

“What Makes Peppers Hot May Also Be Cool For What Ails You,” American Chemical Society, Nov 4, 2003.

Rokade, P.B., “Release of Endomorphin Hormone and Its Effects on Our Body and Moods: A Review,” International Conference on Chemical, Biological and Environment Sciences. Dec 2011.


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Discover the “Master Molecule” Behind the Most Effective Anti-Aging Gains of the 21st Century

I really like resveratrol. It’s a powerful antioxidant and appears to trigger SIRT1 – the so-called “longevity gene.” Studies suggest resveratrol may help us beat many diseases linked to aging – including heart disease, diabetes, nerve damage, and even cancer.

For several years, resveratrol (RES) was the most potent anti-aging molecule known to science. I say, “was,” because we’ve discovered one molecule that even beats resveratrol.

This molecule does everything RES does… but even more effectively. It’s the “master molecule” behind the most promising anti-aging gains of the early 21st century.

Grapes Have Anti-aging Power… But This Fruit Beats Even Grapes

You probably know grapes are a great source of RES. And that nothing can match grapes/red wine for their concentration of this potent anti-aging molecule.

But did you know another fruit delivers potent levels of an anti-oxidant even more powerful than RES?

The latest research shows “pterostilbene” (PSB) has more anti-aging power than even RES. And the richest source of this amazing molecule isn’t grapes. It’s… blueberries.

We’ve known for years blueberries promote mental clarity and many other anti-aging benefits. Now we know why. They’re rich in PSB.

“How could anything be more powerful than resveratrol?” you ask.

That’s a good question… and the answer is quite simple. PSB is much more absorbable. PSB is closely related to RES, but your body can take it in – and put it to work – more easily.

So PSB simply packs more anti-aging punch. And new research is beginning to reveal just how big that punch may be.

Just Like Resveratrol – Only More So

In 2013, two U.S. researchers combed the literature on PSB. They found strong evidence this antioxidant…

  • Fights cancer
  • Defends against nerve damage
  • Lowers inflammation
  • Battles against heart disease, and
  • May help prevent type II diabetes.

Plus, they confirmed your body absorbs PSB more easily – which serves to magnify its effectiveness.

In other words, PSB is just like RES… only more so.

Proof of Anti-Aging Power

Here are just a few recent studies that show how powerful PSB may be…

  • An international research team found PSB fights inflammation and damage to human corneal (eye) cells.
  • Doctors showed “diet-achievable” levels of PSB may ease inflammation and cognitive issues linked to Alzheimer’s. Something RES can’t do.
  • A Chinese study suggests PSB may help minimize damage after a stroke or brain trauma.
  • A review of cancer studies found PSB may discourage tumor generation, trigger the natural “self-destruct” process in cancer cells, and slow the spread of cancers.
  • In animal and test tube studies, PSB blocks much of the damage done by oxidized LDL cholesterol – the main culprit in clogged arteries.
  • Korean researchers showed PSB triggers release of nitric oxide – the molecule your body uses to keep arteries flexible.

And there’s much more research under way.

Getting PSB’s Anti-Aging Benefits

Blueberries are the richest natural source of PSB… but even they contain only a small amount. An average cup of blueberries only has about 20 mcg – micrograms – of PSB. But eaten regularly, there’s enough PSB to offer some antioxidant benefit.

Needless to say, most of the studies I’ve seen use higher doses. And you may well need more to get the most out of PSB.

Fortunately, you don’t have to eat bushels of blueberries to get PSB’s benefits. You can find PSB in supplement form in various doses.

Human trials are few and far between, so it’s hard to know how much to recommend. Just keep in mind PSB is far more absorbable than RES. So if you’ve been taking 250 mg of RES, the same amount of PSB will deliver a lot more antioxidant power.

A recent U.S. study found taking up to 250 mg of PSB for 8 weeks was safe. None of the volunteers had a negative reaction. But, as always, if you’re on any medications, talk to your doctor before taking PSB.

About the Author: Jason Kennedy is a celebrated investigative health writer and the author of The X-Factor Revolution and Beyond the Blue Zone. With over 10 years of experience working with today’s leading alternative and anti-aging doctors, Jason shares his insider status and access to the latest breakthroughs with thousands of readers from around world.


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Chang, J., et al, “Low-dose pterostilbene, but not resveratrol, is a potent neuromodulator in aging and Alzheimer’s disease,” Neurobiology of Aging. Sep 2012; 33(9): 2062–2071.

Zhou, Y., et al, “Orally administrated pterostilbene attenuates acute cerebral ischemia–reperfusion injury in a dose- and time-dependent manner in mice,” Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. Aug 2015; 135: 199–209.

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© Copyright 2016 Discovery Health Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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